questioning frameworks


Lupton, Mandy (2012) Collecting questions 

Lupton, Mandy (2017) Inquiry learning. A pedagogical and curriculum framework for information literacy.  in Sales, Dora & Pinto, Maria (Eds.) Pathways into InformationLiteracy and Communities of Practice: Teaching Approaches and Case Studies. Chandos Publishing. [QUT login]


Abilock, D. (2014). Adding friction: How to design deliberate thinking into the research processLibrary Media Connection32(4), 44-45 [QUT login]

Barell, John. (2008). Chapter 4 : How Do We Plan for Students’ Questions? in Barell, John, Why are school buses always yellow? Teaching for inquiry PreK-5, Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, pp.45-61. [QUT login]

McKenzie, Jamieson. (2005). Chapter 3 : Questions as Technology in McKenzie, Jamieson, Learning to question to wonder to learn, Washington: FNO Press, pp.15-26. [QUT login]

Wilhelm, Jeffrey, (2007). Chapter 3 : Asking the Guiding Question : Reframing the Existing Curriculum into Inquiry Units. In Wilhelm, Jeffrey, Engaging readers and writers with inquiry, (pp.41 – 74). New York: Scholastic. [QUT login]

There are four main types of question frameworks:

Generative frameworks which facilitate students formulating questions

Essential questions/big questions that frame the inquiry

Process question frameworks that guide each stage the inquiry cycle/process

Evaluative questions that guide the critical evaluation of sources (data & information, primary & secondary sources)


Generative frameworks: Facilitating students question asking skills

Questioning Formulation Technique

Inquiry-based learning pdf guide – Brunner – YouthLearn  

Sue Jackson – Helping students develop the ability to ask good questions

How to frame a researchable question in history

Rosie Scholl – The Question Quadrant: A stimulus for a negotiated curriculum

Essential questions

McTighe – Essential Questions

Wiggins, G. (2007) What is an essential question? Big ideas. Authentic Education.

Murdoch, K (2012) Walking the world with questions in our heads

Process questions

KWL (Ogle 1986), KWHLAQ (Barell 2008)

Process questions (reporduced from Lupton in press 2016 pp. 10-11)

Process questions ( Lupton 2017 pp. 41-44)

Evaluative frameworks: critically evaluating sources

Evaluating sources – Generic window

Evaluating sources – Situated window (history, geography, science)

Evaluating sources – Transformative window

Evaluating sources – Expressive window

Evaluating historical sources

SCIM-C strategy    (senior secondary-university)

Using primary sources

10 questions to ask at a site 


testable scientific questions 


Geographical questions extract from draft Australian Curriculum Glossary – questioning conventions (2012 pp. 121-122)

Assignment 2

In Assignment 2 you will need to address the following questions in your unit design:

How do students generate inquiry questions relating to their topic? (see Essential questions & Generative frameworks)

How do students develop their question-asking skills? (see Generative frameworks)

What sorts of questions do students ask to critically evaluate information/sources/data? (see GeSTE windows)

What sorts of questions do students use to evaluate their process/methodology? (see Process frameworks)